Passwords. For non-techies

Passwords are a – for the most part – necessary evil in our connected lives. There has to be a way to know that you are you in a transaction, and a piece of information that only you and your counterpart know about seems perfect for that.

You have indubitably been told many times you should never reuse passwords and you should get a password manager. Guess what – that is correct. When you get one, and it proceeds to chastise you about your instances of password reuse and you use the magnificent automated features to reset passwords, you will notice that many sites not only have minimum requirements for length and complexity – they also have maximum limits. This is where alarm bells should ring in your mind.

Passwords shall only be stored as hashes (what people used to call checksums back in my day) because it is mathematically impossible, well, to deduce the original from the hash. This is not enough to be safe, of course, as evildoers quickly figured out that they could hash (using all major algorithms) enormous dictionaries and lists of popular passwords and then had prefab hashes to compare to ones they found in hacked databases. You need to hash several times over and apply salt to the hash and so on in processes that are better described elsewhere, but the point is – it starts out with a checksum. A checksum is always of constant length. So it doesn’t matter if you submit the Holy Bible as a password, the hash will be the same size.

This means, the only reason people put a size limitation on the password is because they are storing it in clear text in the database, or otherwise process it in clear text.

When you complain about it to customer services they will say either of these things:

  1. We are storing passwords encrypted securely in accordance with industry standards
  2. You don’t understand these things – clearly you must be new to computers.
  3. We need to limit password length for security reasons
  4. We take the security of your data very seriously.

All of that is bollocks. The only reason other than storing data in plain text (or storing it encrypted, so that it can be easily displayed in the admin interface which still also VERY BAD, see below for further rant) could possibly be a misguided attempt at usability, where the UI might limit the text field length to prevent the user from getting lost, but I still would say it is 99.999% likely that it is bollocks and they are showing your password to everybody. At least that is the safest assumption. .

So they know my password –  what is the big deal?

OK, so why does that matter? Well, probably it means that tech support or custom service people can see your password, so you can’t use the one that is basically a bunch of rude words strung together or it is going to be awkward on the phone.

Also, it means that if they have one mischievous intern or employee that copies some passwords from the system, they can really do harm to any site which you STUPIDLY used the same password for. Also, if somebody manages to steal one login to the administrative interface they have your password. In a secure system, that level of data breach should take a little more effort.

I have read somewhere that the far biggest problem with weak password security is password reuse, and you can end that today, for yourself, by using a password manager of some kind. Preferably a good one, but I’m no security person so I couldn’t tell you which one to go with. There is though a strong eggs-in -one-basket aspect to this, but given the scale of breaches I don’t see any other way forward.


There are plenty of password jokes out there, like the one with “User enters password ‘docGrumpyHappySleepyBashfulSneezyDopeyAlbany’, requirement was seven characters and a capital” or the classic XKCD password complexity suggestion correcthorsebatterystaple as an example of a secure password that was also easy to remember.

Since early 2000 Windows Servers have been pestering users to use passwords with capitals, numbers and special characters and a minimum password length of 8, and also to change passwords continuously.  

A few things have happened. Graphics hardware and research. Graphics hardware has made it possible for somebody ambitious to buy (or steal, yes) a bunch of graphics cards and use the phenomenal 3D processors to brute-force compare password hashes (yes, even correctly stored passwords) with hashes of dictionary words and popular passwords and common v@r1ati0ns on them. The rate at which these comparisons can be done is only slowed down slightly if you use a very complex hash, but even with that, the enormous compute power these people can muster makes short passwords trivial to reveal. Yes, that includes correcthorsebatterystaple. To just refer back to the case where reversible encryptions are used to store passwords to that customer service/tech support can read them – yes, those encryptions are extremely easy to decrypt with this kind of firepower. Essentially, there is no difference between an encrypted password and a plain text password in terms of security.

The best passwords are the auto-generated ones from a password manager that also can give you variable length, where you might as well crank it up as far as it’ll go, but of course, you’ll quickly find out many shady websites that won’t let you use a secure password.

Also, regarding changing passwords – The more esoteric password complexity requirements are and the more you make people change passwords, the worse their passwords get, because although I’m sure this surprises security people I must mention that normal people have to work too, they can’t spend all their time fiddling with passwords. Of course cheating by using a format that gets incremented as the system makes you change passwords isn’t exactly more secure- in fact a better solution may even be writing the password on a post-it, unless of course you broadcast video from your office and people deface your twitter because they see your password in the background. Of course, again the answer is a password manager. And also, the answer may be to give people more time with the same password, but bring more draconian complexity requirements.

But I though we were all post-password now… I have an iPhone

Good for you. Remember that it is hard to reset your fingerprints. The consumer grade fingerprint readers are far from fool-proof, and once somebody has a decent copy of your prints they have your things.We will see how things develop as the bio-metric identification thing gains more traction, but security people are already concerned about a case where a woman was made to unlock her iPhone because she had TouchID. The coercion did not count as violating the right against self incrimination the way forcing somebody to divulge a password would have. I’m sure further issues will come up. The general advice seems to be, use bio-metric data for identification, possibly, but rely on alternative means for authorisation.

Anyway – the point is, get a password manager if you don’t have one, and don’t forget to name and shame those that limit password length or – heaven forbid – email passwords in clear text. Do disable auto-fill, which is a feature where the password manager automatically adds username and password on a login page as it loads. There are often exploits that tricks password managers and automatically capture username and passwords by tricking the user to browse to evil websites. These vulnerabilities get patched, and new ones get discovered. Just disable auto-fill and you will be OK.

Troy Hunt on passwords and complexity, and how to build a good password reset feature..

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